Title IX, passed in 1972, transformed American sports — it decided girls deserved the same opportunities as boys to play sports. From then on, men and women in college had to receive equal treatment on the playing field and equal funding for their athletic programs. Now the United States produces many of the best female athletes in the world.
But that equality stops at graduation.
Before Title IX, women were head coaches of more than 90 percent of women's college teams. Passage of the law flooded women's sports with money and created many more jobs, many of which went to men. Now about 40 percent of women's college teams are coached by women. Only about 3 percent of men's college teams are coached by women.
That means that men have roughly double the number of opportunities to coach. It only gets worse higher up the administrative ladder: 89 percent of Division I college athletic directors are men.
Without equal opportunities to lead, women don't.
The pioneering female college coaches in the Video Op-Ed above explain how coaching is no different from any other C.E.O. or leadership role — teams could win more games by including the other half of the population and leveraging their talents.
If we can't fix the leadership gender gap in sports, where can we fix it? Sports are entertainment, and they should reflect our values at their most unvarnished. We pass laws that make our daughters feel empowered while they are girls, and sell sneakers through ads with names like "The Girl Effect." We put girls in sports so that they learn the best person wins. We teach them they're in a meritocracy — until we leave them on their own come adulthood.
And so girls and boys grow up being led by men. Guess who they come to believe are the real leaders?
We all know the trope: When a woman doesn't lead well, it's evidence that women can't lead. When a man doesn't work out, he wasn't the right fit. Women need to be twice as good, often while working twice as hard, to stay in the game. A lot of women leave. And when you let an entire category of people disappear from your talent pool, everyone suffers.
By not diversifying, college teams are quite literally leaving points on the field.
Adding women to leadership roles improves the overall performance of a team, across fields. According to a Harvard study, gender-balanced teams perform better than male-dominated teams. A 2019 Harvard Business Review study found that "women outscored men on 17 of the 19 capabilities that differentiate excellent leaders from average or poor ones." Another analysis of gender studies shows that when it comes to leadership skills, men excel at confidence, whereas women stand out for competence.
Absolute parity between the numbers of male and female coaches isn't just a goal for the sake of a goal. We should worry about why these ratios and regression are as striking as they are and whether there's a chance we might be keeping them this way.
Other sectors have made significant progress toward gender parity at the leadership level. Some industries have increased female leadership when C.E.O.s follow a version of this playbook: publicly call for change, set realistic data targets and demand to be held accountable.
Nine years ago, only 13 percent of the largest 350 publicly traded companies in Britain had female leadership. Together, they publicly pledged to achieve 30 percent, and by making their data transparent, they celebrated reaching "the 30 Percent Club" in 2019. Norway took a more blunt approach with quotas, and the N.F.L. adopted the Rooney Rule in 2003 that requires teams with a head-coaching vacancy to interview a minority candidate. That has helped increase the number of minority coaches by 20 percent, according to one study.
The N.C.A.A. in general and college sports conferences, like the Big 10 and the SEC in particular, could borrow from these models. (This report ranks schools according to the percentage of female coaches they employ.)
Think of all the championships being left on the field by limiting the talent pool to half the population. That's why university presidents, alumni and fans should demand realistic, data-based metrics and hold schools accountable, just as they do with their teams on the field. Seismic change starts at the top with university presidents, athletic directors and the N.C.A.A.
Today we raise our little girls to follow their dreams and to excel. That is, until they become women and expect to be paid for it.
The Voyager Golden Record shot into space in 1977 with a message from humanity to the cosmos - and decades later, it stands as a reminder that we are all connected.
The United Nations displays a replica of the Golden Record at its Headquarters, and shares a deep connection to the process of creating it. A NASA committee asked the UN to provide materials to include on the playlist, and the first words on the Record itself are those of the then-UN Secretary-General expressing hope for peace and friendship with whoever discovers and plays it.
Bill Nye "The Science Guy," CEO of the Planetary Society, walks viewers through how to decipher the Golden Record, its significance today, and how reverence for the universe can inspire action for our planet.
This aligns with the ongoing work of the United Nations to promote international cooperation in the peaceful use and exploration of space.
The Director of the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs, Simonetta Di Pippo, explains the significance of the Golden Record in our world now. "The undertaking of the Voyager project reminds us of who we are, where we came from, and that we should treat each other with care." Brooklyn's noisy, whirring Wonderville is filled with video games and pinball machines. But unlike other video arcades, all the games in Wonderville - from Typing Party to A Place to Bury Strangers - are homemade. Proprietor Mark Kleback started the space with his wife, Stephanie Gross. Mark told InsideEdition.com, "A lot of the games that we showcase are built by one person, maybe two. They're built on this labor of love." The attack on October 17, 2019, shocked Mexico.
The Sinaloa drug cartel - one of the country's largest and most powerful criminal organisations - took over the streets of the northern city of Culiacan with a devastating array of high powered weaponry.
From machine guns to AK-47 assault rifles, the rival gangs were armed to the teeth, despite strict gun controls, the weapons smuggled across the border from the United States.
About 70 percent of the guns seized in Mexico are traced back to the US.
Successive Mexican governments have asked the US to do more to stop the weapons flow. And those calls for action have grown louder because of the rising murder rate - already one of the highest worldwide.
But how is Mexico policing its border? And how is it dealing with those weapons once they are in the country?
Talk to Al Jazeera met an arms trafficker, a hitman, and the wife of a victim of gun violence, to get insight into the weapons crisis facing Mexico. Medical professionals are questioning whether ventilators are the best option for treating patients who are in a critical condition. Studies carried out in New York in the US and Wuhan in China suggest the current death rate associated with the support system is around 86-88%.
Now intensive care units in the UK are using sleep disorder machines to treat patients suffering from COVID-19. These provide patients with more gentle ventilation while allowing them to remain awake.
[MUSIC PLAYING] From the end zone to the locker room, he pushes you to be your best. Be perfect. It's not about that scoreboard out there. He shows you how to dig deep and beat the odds. We shut them down because we can. He's a leader who takes his team to the limit and to victory. [LAUGHTER, CHEERING] [WHISTLE BLOWS] Hey, women coach, too. [MUSIC PLAYING] Here we go. Hey. They call me Hutch. They don't call me Coach Hutch, they just call me Hutch I'm Meredith. I was a Division I soccer player, and I have 20 years of coaching experience across all different levels. I'm Coach Eddy, and I'm the only woman coaching Division I men's basketball. College sports is a $14 billion industry with only a handful of female head coaches, who are basically like C.E.O.'s running their teams. In men's sports, only 3% of head coaches are women. But even in women's sports, we only coach 42% of the teams. Across all the Division I sports, only one in four head coaches are women. It's time for change. [MUSIC PLAYING] I was a young kid in the '60s and early '70s. We didn't have varsity sports for women. I was a cheerleader. All I ever wanted to do was get to play. And Title IX brought out the fact, if it's good for young men, why wouldn't it be good for young women? It was a 1972 amendment that guaranteed that there could be no discrimination based on gender by any federally funded institution. I went to Michigan State University and I played basketball and softball there. We didn't have a good space to play — we had a leaky roof and warped floors. We didn't have a locker room. At some point, it really hit us in the face that we deserve to be treated just as well as the boys, not better. And we filed a lawsuit. And we won in an hour. In this late '70s, which is when I went to college, well over 90% of all women's sports teams were coached by women. Now it's somewhere closer to 40%. So you could say the decline is drastic. Title IX did exactly what it was supposed to do. It got more girls playing. Title IX asked for participation. It didn’t ask for coaching. We're moving backward in gender equity in coaching. In other fields, they're making advancements. where have all the Women gone? And why are the opportunities going to men? As the opportunities improved, we saw a lot more of the other gender going into our coaching pools. Notre Dame head coach Muffet McGraw is coaching in her ninth Final Four today. When you look at men's basketball and 99% of the jobs go to men, why shouldn't 100% or 99% of the jobs in women's basketball go to women? I'm a big fan — I just got to meet her recently — of Muffet McGraw. Men have the power. Men make the decisions. And when these girls are coming out, who are they looking up to to tell them that that's not the way it has to be? And where better to do that than in sports? I think there is a place for men in our game. All I'm suggesting is that we should have a pretty strong representation of women in leadership positions in everything. [CHEERING, CLAPPING] Go team! You're not going to dream it unless you can see it. [MUSIC PLAYING] I started playing professional basketball. I played in the WNBA for the L.A. Sparks and the Phoenix Mercury. And then after that, I decided that I wanted to coach. [INAUDIBLE], are you with me? I heard a lot of no's. I got 10 years of no's, actually. Good, you got pep, you got pep, you got pep. I really want to be a collegiate head coach. I hope that there's an athletic director that has the courage to not see me as a woman, but just see me as a qualified coach. Years ago, when we were looking for a men's basketball coach, and it was mentioned to me by of course one of our administrators — and the comment was we're going to get the best one out there. And at the time, Pat Summitt was alive and well. The winningest coach in all of college basketball — men or women's. Coached, I believe, eight national championships at Tennessee. And I said, are we going to interview Pat Summitt? And of course, I got a big laugh. Like, that's funny. And I was dead serious. To all the people that think that women can't coach as well as men — try me. Go, go, go, go. What we're doing here at the University of Maine, which is really, really special, is empowering these young men to have the confidence to work with strong alpha women. When they go into the workforce, they're going to work with women. We've seen a little bit of the needle moving We've seen some of the women — and Major League Baseball has hired some women as hitting coaches. You've seen the NBA — Becky Hammon certainly broke that ceiling. We're not there yet. We're still evolving. We're supposed to fit in and walk the walk, but we have to do it in this really particular way That doesn't necessarily ruffle feathers. Double standards — you see it all the time. If there's a bad call in our game — Hey! — — and I run out there and I get in the umpire's face, — and I run out there and I get in the umpire's face, basically, I'm emotional. Jim Harbaugh is our football coach. Five-yard penalty, [INAUDIBLE]. Frustration building for Harbaugh. In a football game, when there's a bad call and Jim Harbaugh gets in that ref's face and throws his headset and people say he's passionate, he's intense, he's just leading his men. Lookie here, lookie here. [INAUDIBLE] Is livid and I don't blame him If you look at male coaches who have been released from their jobs — whether it be for not winning, cheating — they resurface, they get other jobs. When a woman loses her job, she is branded and marked as no good. Sports are no different from business or politics, tech, you name it. It starts at the top. People hire people who they're comfortable with. Male boards in business hire male C.E.O.'s. And in sports, male athletic directors hire male coaches. And 89% of Division I athletic directors are men. The research shows that diversity leads to success — that means hiring only men is leaving titles on the field. The only way change is going to happen is if organizations and institutions hire more women. University presidents should set a target and make it public so that they're held accountable. It's not rocket science. Women are all great enough to play the game. Women are great enough to coach the game. [MUSIC PLAYING]